Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 35

GLOBAL & DOMESTIC OUTLOOK
JAPAN
Considering its large, high-tech-focused economy, Japan has surprisingly few lawyers (bengoshis) because Japanese people traditionally
rarely file lawsuits to settle disputes. Nevertheless, the journey to
becoming a lawyer begins by completing a two- or three-year graduate
law program, passing the bar exam (which can only be taken three
times within five years after graduation), and completing a one-year
internship supervised by the Legal Training and Research Institute of the
Supreme Court of Japan. Those who didn't graduate from law school
must pass a preliminary qualifying examination before taking the bar
exam. Afterward, candidates must join both the national Japanese
Federation of Bar Associations and one of the 52 local bar associations
in the jurisdiction where they practice.

AUSTRALIA
Aspiring law practitioners must obtain either an undergraduate LLB or a juris doctor (JD), followed by completion of the
Practical Legal Training to earn a Graduate Diploma in Legal
Practice. Graduates can then apply for admission to the
Supreme Court of the relevant state or territory. The next step
is to obtain a practicing certificate, a license to provide legal
services, from the local law society. This may require 18 to 24
months of supervised practice at a firm, depending on the
locality. Practitioners can choose to remain a solicitor (one
who advises clients and prepares legal matters) or complete
further requirements, including the Bar Readers' Course and
the national bar exam, to become a barrister (specializing in
court litigation).

PORTUGAL
To become a lawyer here, one must earn a
Portuguese law degree or a university-level
law degree outside the country, followed
by 18 months of training before taking the
written and oral bar exam administered by
the Portuguese Bar Association (Ordem dos
Advogados). Aspiring public prosecutors must
pass knowledge tests, a CV evaluation, and a
psychological test by the Centre for Judicial
Studies (Centro de Estudos Judiciários) before
apprenticing under a deputy prosecutor. Legal
agents (solicitadores) provide clients with legal
advice and representation in court. They must
complete between 12 and 18 months of training,
obtain appropriate references from the apprenticeship, and pass a national exam.

ARGENTINA
In Argentina there's a distinction between lawyers and
attorneys. Attorneys can represent clients in court, while
lawyers often serve as consultants or policy advisors. Both
practitioners must complete an undergraduate degree,
which can take between five and six years depending on the
university. Attorneys must graduate from law school before
choosing a law practice. They must also pass a multiday bar
exam administered by one of the 74 Colegios de Abogados.

CANADA
Canada requires at least 90 credit hours from an undergraduate program and a
JD/LLB degree from a recognized law school. Candidates must take the Law School
Admission Test administered by the Law School Admission Council. Some law
schools may also require letters of recommendation, work experience, community
involvement, and a personal statement. Aspiring lawyers then must complete an
article-writing period and pass the chosen province's bar admission exam before
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obtaining a license.

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SEPTEMBER 2019

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WASHINGTON LAWYER 35


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Washington Lawyer - September 2019

Table of Contents for the Digital Edition of Washington Lawyer - September 2019

Digital Extras
Your Voice
From Our President
Practice Management
Calendar of Events
Tomorrow’s Lawyers: Jd + Practice Ready
The Justice Gap & The Rise Of Nonlawyer Legal Providers
D.C. Bar Cle: Keeping Up With The Law
Aba Delegate’s Corner
Member Spotlight
Global & Domestic Outlook
Worth Reading
Media Bytes
Attorney Briefs
Ask The Ethics Experts
Disciplinary Summaries
2019 Celebration Of Leadership & Presidents Reception
Community & Connections
Last Word
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Cover1
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Cover2
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 1
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 2
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 3
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Digital Extras
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Your Voice
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - From Our President
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 7
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Practice Management
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 9
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Calendar of Events
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 11
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Tomorrow’s Lawyers: Jd + Practice Ready
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 13
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 14
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 15
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 16
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 17
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - The Justice Gap & The Rise Of Nonlawyer Legal Providers
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 19
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 20
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 21
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 22
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 23
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 24
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - D.C. Bar Cle: Keeping Up With The Law
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 26
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 27
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Aba Delegate’s Corner
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 29
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Member Spotlight
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 31
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 32
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 33
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Global & Domestic Outlook
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 35
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Worth Reading
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 37
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Media Bytes
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 39
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Attorney Briefs
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Ask The Ethics Experts
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Disciplinary Summaries
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 43
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 2019 Celebration Of Leadership & Presidents Reception
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 45
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Community & Connections
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - 47
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Last Word
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Cover3
Washington Lawyer - September 2019 - Cover4
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